Lady genitalia of Yards. fasciculata and you may strategies getting mating plug coupling. (A) Virgin ladies genitalia into the front look at. (B) Male genitalia of pre-copula men, handling the feminine genitalia. (C–E) Genital pill, metasomal sterna S-VIII and you will S-IX. (F) Men genitalia undertaking the brand new coupling of the plug: ventral look at vaginal pill and metasomal sternum S-IX projecting out from the human body of your men of the a beneficial telescopic way. (G) Men vaginal pill detached off male’s system, with dick valves triggered, gonostyli up against the opposite position in relation to the first. (H) Metasomal sterna S-VIII and S-IX, in which sternum S-IX takes on the original condition in the male’s abdomen. (I) Mating connect in more detail, indicating the fresh new horizontal compressing off gonocoxites. (J) The newest vaginal chamber of a plugged lady: the fresh new membranous part with which has this new mating connect connected.
Regarding low-Melipona types (F
longipes, S. aff. Postica, and you will P. minima), we noticed powerful manhood valves with intermediary curve and a diminished spatha ( Figure step 1)paring the overall morphology regarding manhood valves and you will spatha away from Meters. fasciculata to another examined kinds, we discovered that one another Meters. flavolineata and you will Meters. seminigra has slim dick valves which have reasonable curvature. But not, Yards. seminigra possess reduced regulators than just M. flavolineata, and you may a well-established spatha when comparing to another Melipona ( Profile 1).
Description off hypothesized plugging actions
The last position regarding mating plugs in to the mated people coordinated the fresh new position of male’s gut during copulation because of “J” direction and you can positioning significantly less than woman’s abdomen ( Figure 4C). In most physogastric queens off Yards. fasciculata, we seen brand new mating plug linked to the membranous vaginal pockets of the manhood valves, into the spatha body established on the female ventral part, placed under the fresh new gonopore ( Profile 3J). I propose that the fresh new mating plug apparatus try triggered when the male vaginal pill is actually irreversibly protruded away from male’s looks, which results in changed ranking of your own gonostyli, knob regulators, and you can gonocoxites.
The brand new mating set of M. fasciculata, considering videos number off mating off a connected species. All the way through: (A) male in-flight, seeking to condition by itself along the ladies; (B) positioned male, exhibiting sets regarding base fitting along the female’s body; (C) male increasing the instinct of one’s lady; (D) male leaving the female immediately following winning mating, that is, brand new mating connect accessory. Throughout bits, male hi5 coupons wings is portrayed to show their way through the mating, based on Supplementary Videos S1 .
The fresh new mating group of Meters. fasciculata, according to videos number of mating away from a connected types. All the way through: (A) male in-flight, looking to status by itself across the female; (B) positioned men, appearing sets regarding feet fitting over the female’s human body; (C) men improving the gut of your females; (D) male making the female shortly after profitable mating, that’s, the fresh mating plug attachment. In every pieces, male wings try illustrated to depict the direction while in the mating, considering Second Clips S1 .
In accordance with the testing ranging from sleep county out-of vaginal capsules and you may triggered state out of mating plugs, its useful morphology, and in video records on mating choices of a directly related species ( Secondary Video S1 ), we suggest that creating out-of mating connect happens in 5 hypothetical strategies ( Figures step three and you can cuatro):
Immediately following immobilizing the female system, the male inserts his metasomal sternum S-VIII in people tergum T-VI, lifting they ( Profile 4C).
Due to the fact female genital chamber is actually unsealed ( Contour 3A), the male gonostyli meets brand new woman’s vaginal area. Shortly after placement the latest sternum S-VIII, the male metasomal sternum S-IX protrudes out from the male’s human anatomy to the the latest woman’s genital chamber plus the genital product, by a telescopic movement ( Profile 3F). The new insertion out of male vaginal pill with the people genital chamber isn’t with this new gonostyli, and therefore move backwards in the processes, leftover outside the female genital chamber ( Profile 3G).